creating secure folders and files
With FileVault 2 having a number of drawbacks, a common question I’m seeing is how best to secure data on Lion and Mountain Lion without using FV2.
There’s a number of tricks on offer, from making transparent folders, excluding folders from Spotlight, or using Terminal to make them invisible or hidden.
However, all of these methods suffer from one inevitable drawback: anyone who knows their way around Terminal can open, read, copy or delete your folders as if you had never employed any of the above tricks at all. Well, not many people know their way around Terminal you say? But everyone knows their way around Google, and learning how to find files via the Terminal is information easily found, even on Applehelpwriter! In short, all those methods listed above are really a waste of time if it’s security that you’re after.
Fortunately, there is a simple answer to securing localised files or folders, and that’s to make a local encrypted disk image with Disk Utility and then move your data into it. To do so, follow this procedure:
1. Open Disk Utility (Applications/Utilities/Disk Utility.app)
2. Click near the bottom of the sidebar in empty space to make sure none of the disks in the sidebar are selected.
3. Click the New Image icon in the task bar.
4. Give the image a name and choose a location to store it. Storing it in the User Library is not a bad idea. Give it a boring name like ‘old system’, ‘old data’ or something like that, but don’t hit ‘Create’ just yet.
5. At the bottom of the dialogue box is a field for encryption. Click on the option button and choose either 128-bit or 256-bit (the second choice is the strongest but also slower. 128-bit is still so strong that almost no-one save the CIA will be able to crack it!)
6. Create a password that you’re not going to forget. Do NOT use the same password that you use for your Admin account or for anything else for maximum security. Uncheck the ‘save in my keychain’ option.
if you forget the password don't waste time seeking help trying to break it. The system is designed to be uncrackable. If you forget the password, your data is lost for good.
PRO TIP: For that reason, you might like to use a password manager like ‘1Password‘ for this and all your other passwords. The main reason people forget passwords is infrequency of use. With 1Password you use a single password to unlock all your other passwords and to have them entered automatically into web pages and other fields.
7. Set up the rest of the options as in the screenshot below.
8. When you’re ready, press ‘Create’ to make the disk image.
9. Once the image has been created, copy the files you want to protect into the disk image window, just like you would a hard disk or other connected device. Now, whenever you want to access your protected data, just click on the disk image and enter the password and your data is ready to be used.
10. Test mounting and ejecting the disk image a few time. Open a few files and save your changes. After you’re sure everything is working as expected, delete the files from the original location that you copied them from. Also, don’t forget to eject the disk image in Finder’s sidebar each time when you’re done using it to prevent anyone else accessing your protected files.
learning the Terminal – Part Two
In the last post, we learned how to see all the contents of a folder – invisible and visible files – in the Terminal. However, most of us prefer working in the GUI, so this post is going to show you how to work a bit of Terminal magic to easily turn on and off your invisible files and folders in Finder and the desktop.
Open Terminal, and type or copy/paste the following to the command prompt:
defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles TRUE; killall Finder
(note that all commands in these posts should always be assumed to be case-sensitive).
Now switch out of Terminal and have a look at Finder or your desktop. You should see some ‘hidden’ files now in a sort of greyed-out 50% opacity (files like .DS_Store). If you can’t see such files, go back and check that you typed or copied the entire command correctly.
Assuming you can now see your invisible files in Finder, switch back to Terminal. Press the up arrow key on your keyboard. Notice that the last command you typed reappears.
That’s a handy trick to remember. You can move between your previous commands with the up arrow and down arrow keys to save time re-typing or modifying commands.
In this case, we want to use the last command again, but we also want to modify it. Use the left arrow key to move the cursor back to “True” and then use delete to remove “True”. Leave the cursor where the letter ‘T” was and type FALSE. Make sure the semi-colon ; is still there.
Press Return — you don’t need to move the cursor to the end of the line as you would with a word processor. You can hit Return no matter where the cursor is in the command line and it will execute (or try to) whatever is typed on the whole of the command line.
Now, if you switch back to Finder or the desktop, you should see that all your hidden files have disappeared again.
OK, now that we have tested these commands to check that they work, let’s do something a bit more useful with them.
Switch back to Terminal. Type
and press Return.
Wow! Did you see what just happened? You substituted the word “FALSE” from the last command with the word “TRUE” and executed the entire command. In other words, you just made your hidden files visible again! Go and look at the desktop and you’ll see that your invisible files just returned. Try it again. Switch back to Finder and type
to replace the word “TRUE” in the last command with the word “FALSE”. Hit Return to execute it.
Using the pattern ^error^correction is a great way to both correct commands you type incorrectly and to run two commands one after the other that have only one term or option different.
Back in Terminal, hit the up arrow to bring the last command back onto the command line. This time, I want you to hit control-A on your keyboard. Notice that this brings the cursor to the start of the command line, which is what we want as we’re going to type in a new command before the “defaults…” part.
With the cursor at the beginning of the line, type
and a space. Then type a double quotation mark right next to the ‘d’ of ‘defaults, so the beginning part looks like this
(the ellipsis or ‘…’ is used here just to show that the command continues and should not be in your actual command line)
On the keyboard, press control-E.
This takes the cursor to the end of the command line (remember: control-A to go to the start, control-E to go to the end).
Type another double-quotation mark right after the word ‘Finder’ so the ending looks like this
… ; killall Finder”
Now hit the spacebar once, and type a double right angle-bracket
Hit the spacebar again and type
The entire command should look like this:
echo “defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles FALSE; killall Finder” >> .bash_profile
Now press Return. Type
and press Return one more time.
What did we just do?
To see what you did, type
As you can see, after testing those two commands on the command line, we’ve now sent them to the .bash_profile file, saving us the job of typing them out again (and possibly making an error when we do so). However, we can’t leave the commands like that – if we do, then they will run every time we log into the Terminal. Rather, we want to use these commands to define functions, just like we did last time with ‘show’ and ‘up’.
To do that, press control-L on the keyboard, then use the down arrow key to bring the cursor to the beginning of the first line with a ‘defaults’ command on it.
Press Return. Press the up arrow once, then type
Press Return and in the new line created type
Use the down arrow key to move the cursor down to the line below the “Defaults…FALSE” line and press Return.
In the new line created type
Then press Return. Type
Press Return and type
Use the down arrow key to move the cursor below the “Defaults…TRUE” command. (If you can’t go below the last typed line, then on the keyboard press control-E to move the cursor to the end of the line, the press Return).
Check that the whole thing looks like this:
Once you’re satisfied, hold down the control key while pressing first the x and then c keys. Press y when prompted to confirm the save. You should be returned to the command line. Type
to logout. Then press command-W and command-N to close and reopen Terminal.
What did we do this time?
We just made some new, easy-to-remember commands to show and hide our hidden files in Finder and the desktop. On the way, we learned how to append commands to files using the >> function, as well as how to move the cursor to the beginning and end of a line using ‘control-A’ and ‘control-E’ respectively. We also learned how to recall previous commands on the command line using the arrow keys and how to correct or modify previous commands using the ^error^correction pattern.
Wow, you’ve come a long way in two short tutorials!
To test out what you just did, type
then press Return.
Switch to Finder and there’s all your hidden files! To make them invisible again, switch back to Terminal and type
From now on, whenever you want to see your hidden files, just use the show_all command in Terminal. Hide them again with hide_all. 😃
control-A – places the cursor at the beginning of the command line (also works in emacs editor)
control-E – places the cursor at the end of the command line (also works in emacs editor)
control-L – on the command line, this clears the screen (equivalent to the ‘clear’ command); in emacs, this places the caret inside the editor allowing you to edit (=insert point)
up & down keyboard arrows – moves through history of commands
^error^correction – replaces the term after the first ^ with the term given after the second ^ in the previous command, then executes the entire command
echo – sends the following string or command to the specified file (if no file is specified, the string will output back to your terminal screen. In other words, if you type echo hello, the Terminal will print “Hello” on the next line; hence the term ‘echo’! )
learning the Terminal – Part One
learning the Terminal – Part Three
learning the Terminal – Part Four
how to change all Desktop backgrounds
Fasttasks – a utility for ten common terminal tasks